We assume that Kubernetes cluster is already installed and kubectl is configured. To install Twister2 on Minikube, please follow the steps at: Installing Twister2 on Minikube
To run Twister2 jobs on Kubernetes clusters, You must perform the following step:
Here are the steps to run jobs in Kubernetes clusters:
Here are the list of optional installations/settings:
- Job Package Uploader Settings: This is recommended to upload the job package through a web server.
- Deploying Twister2 Dashboard: This is a recommended step to monitor Twister2 jobs on Kubernetes clusters.
- Persistent Storage Settings: You can set up persistent storage only if you want to use.
- Fault Tolerant Jobs: A ZooKeeper server is required, if you want to run fault-tolerant Twister2 jobs.
- Generating Secret Object for OpenMPI Jobs: This is required only if you are going to run OpenMPI jobs.
- Providing Rack and Datacenter Information: This is required only if you want Twister2 to perform rack and data center aware scheduling.
Twister2 runs jobs in Docker containers in Kubernetes clusters. Developers need to rebuild Twister2 Docker image if they want to modify twister2 source codes:
- Twister2 requires Kubernetes version v1.10 or higher.
- When ZooKeeper is used, at least ZooKeeper version 3.5 or above is required.
Authorization of Pods
Twister2 Worker pods need to watch Job Master pod and get its IP address. In addition, Job Master needs to be able to scale worker pods during the computation and delete job resources after the job has completed. Therefore, before submitting a job, a Role and a RoleBinding object need to be created. We prepared the following YAML file: twister2-auth.yaml.
If you are using "default" namespace, then execute the following command:
$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/DSC-SPIDAL/twister2/master/twister2/config/src/yaml/conf/kubernetes/deployment/twister2-auth.yaml
If you are not using "default" namespace, download the above yaml file, change the namespace field value to the namespace value that your users will use to submit Twister2 jobs. Then, execute the following command:
$ kubectl create -f /path/to/file/twister2-auth.yaml
Running Jobs in Kubernetes
You can submit and kill jobs in Kubernetes as it is explained in the job submission document. You must specify the cluster type as "kubernetes".
If there is a problem with job submission, job submission client will exit with a corresponding message printed to the screen. Otherwise, job submission client either finishes execution with success or waits to upload the job package to workers.
Please check the logging document for accessing job logs in Kubernetes clusters.
Configuration files for kubernetes clusters are under the directory:
You can specify job related configurations either through resource.yaml file or in your job java file by using Twister2Job class methods. If you specify job parameters in resource.yaml file, then you can load them by using following method in your code:
We are using job names in jobIDs. In addition, we are using jobIDs as StatefulSet and Service names. Furthermore, we are using jobIDs in labels to identify job pods. Therefore job names must follow Kubernetes naming rules: Kubernetes resource naming rules.
Job names should consist of lower case alphanumeric characters and dash(-) only. Their length can be 30 chars at most. If job names do not conform to these rules, we automatically change them to accommodate those rules. We use the changed names in jobIDs.
Job Package Uploader Settings
When users submit a Twister2 job in Kubernetes cluster, submitting client needs to transfer the job package to workers and the job master. The submitting client first packs all job related files into a tar package file. This archive file needs to be transferred to each worker pod that will be started.
We provide two methods:
- Job package file transfer from submitting client to job pods directly
- Job package file transfer through uploader web server pods
We first check whether there is any uploader web server running in the cluster. If there is, we upload the job package to the uploader web server pods. Job pods download the job package from uploader web server pods. Otherwise, submitting client uploads the job package to all pods in the job directly. Both methods transfer the job package from client to pods by using kubectl copy method.
If you are running many Twister2 jobs with many workers, it would be more efficient and faster to run uploader web server pods. We designed a StatefulSet that runs an nginx web server. You can deploy it with following command:
$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/DSC-SPIDAL/twister2/master/twister2/config/src/yaml/conf/kubernetes/deployment/twister2-uploader-wo-ps.yaml
You can modify the number of replicas in uploader web server yaml file above or the compute resources used.
If you choose to use your own web server pods, then you need to specify following configuration parameters in resource.yaml file:
twister2.kubernetes.uploader.web.server twister2.kubernetes.uploader.web.server.directory twister2.kubernetes.uploader.web.server.label
Please check conf/kubernetes/resource.yaml file for more explanation about these parameters.
Deploying Twister2 Dashboard
Twister2 Dashboard enables users to monitor their jobs through a web browser. Although installing this dashboard is not mandatory for running Twister2 jobs, it is highly recommended. A single instance of the Dashboard runs in each cluster for all users.
If you are using default namespace, then you can deploy Twister2 Dashboard without persistent storage as:
$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/DSC-SPIDAL/twister2/master/twister2/config/src/yaml/conf/kubernetes/deployment/twister2-dashboard-wo-ps.yaml
If you are using another namespace, or would like to change a parameter of Dashboard, then you can download this file, change the desired parameter values and execute the create command on the modified file.
You can access the Dashboard from any machine that has kubectl installed and has the credentials to connect to the kubernetes cluster.
First run the following command in your workstation to create a secure channel:
$ kubectl proxy
Then, access Dashboard at the following URL:
If you are using a namespace other than the default, replace "default" in the URL with your namespace value.
Running Dashboard as a standalone web server
You can also run Dashboard as a standalone webserver in your cluster. Job master pod should be able to access the machine that is running Dashboard to be able to feed job status data.
Run Dashboard server with the following command:
$ bin/twister2 dash
Dashboard runs at the port 8080.
You need to give the address of Dashboard at the configuration file: conf/kubernetes/core.yaml You should set the value of following parameter:
Persistent Storage Settings
To enable persistent storage in Twister2, a StorageClass must exist in the cluster backed by a dynamic storage provisioner. The name of the persistent StorageClass needs to be specified in the conf/kubernetes/resource.yaml configuration file. Configuration parameter is:
We tested with NFS-Client provisioner from: https://github.com/kubernetes-incubator/external-storage/tree/master/nfs-client We also tested with provisioners in AWS and Minikube.
Fault Tolerant Jobs
We use ZooKeeper servers to save job meta state in fault tolerant jobs. In the case of failures, job master and workers get the job meta data from zookeeper servers and rejoin.
ZooKeeper servers are not used in non-fault tolerant Twister2 jobs.
Following configuration parameter needs to be set as true to specify the job as fault tolerant in core.yaml:
The addresses of ZooKeeper servers are specified with the configuration parameter in resource.yaml. If there are multiple zookeeper servers, they can be specified in the form of "ip1:port,ip2:port,ip3:port"
If you do not already have a ZooKeeper server running, you can run an experimental one by deploying it as a pod. We have a yaml file for that. You can deploy it as:
$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/DSC-SPIDAL/twister2/master/twister2/config/src/yaml/conf/kubernetes/deployment/zookeeper-wo-persistence.yaml
Then you can get its ip address by using following command and specify that in above resource.yaml file. It runs at the port 2181.
$ kubectl get pods -o=wide | grep twister2-zookeeper
Requirement: Twister2 requires at least ZooKeeper version of 3.5.
Generating Secret Object for OpenMPI Jobs
When using OpenMPI communications in Twister2, pods need to have password-free SSH access among them. This is accomplished by first generating an SSH key pair and deploying them as a Kubernetes Secret on the cluster.
First, generate an SSH key pair and save them in files by using:
Second, create a Kubernetes Secret object for the namespace of Twister2 users with the already generated key pairs. Execute the following command by specifying generated key files. Last parameter is the namespace. If you are using a namespace other than default, please change that.
$ kubectl create secret generic twister2-openmpi-ssh-key --from-file=id_rsa=/path/to/.ssh/id_rsa --from-file=id_rsa.pub=/path/to/.ssh/id_rsa.pub --from-file=authorized_keys=/path/to/.ssh/id_rsa.pub --namespace=default
The fifth parameter (twister2-openmpi-ssh-key) is the name of the Secret object to be generated. That has to match the following configuration parameter in the network.yaml file:
You can retrieve the created Secret object in YAML form by executing the following command:
$ kubectl get secret <secret-name> -o=yaml
Another possibility for deploying the Secret object is to use the YAML file template. You can edit that secret.yaml file. You can put the public and private keys to the corresponding fields. You can set the name and the namespace values. Then, you can create the Secret object by using kubectl method as:
$ kubectl create secret -f /path/to/file/secret.yaml
Providing Rack and Datacenter Information to Twister2
Twister2 can use rack names and data center names of the nodes when scheduling tasks. There are two ways administrators and users can provide this information.
Through Configuration Files:
Users can provide the IP addresses of nodes in racks in their clusters. In addition, they can provide the list of data centers with rack data in them.
Here is an example configuration:
kubernetes.datacenters.list: - dc1: ['blue-rack', 'green-rack'] - dc2: ['rack01', 'rack02'] kubernetes.racks.list: - blue-rack: ['node01.ip', 'node02.ip', 'node03.ip'] - green-rack: ['node11.ip', 'node12.ip', 'node13.ip'] - rack01: ['node51.ip', 'node52.ip', 'node53.ip'] - rack02: ['node61.ip', 'node62.ip', 'node63.ip']
Put these lists to resource.yaml file. Then, assign the following configuration parameter in resource.yaml as true:
Labelling Nodes With Rack and Data Center Information:
Administrators can label their nodes in the cluster for their rack and datacenter information. Each node in the cluster must be labelled once. When users submit a Twister2 job, submitting client first queries Kubernetes master for the labels of nodes. It provides this list to all workers in the job.
Note: For this solution to work, job submitting users must have admin privileges.
Example Labelling Commands: Administrators can use kubectl command to label the nodes in the cluster. The format of the label creation command is as follows:
$ kubectl label node
Then, used rack and data center labels must be provided in the configuration files. These configuration parameters are:
To get the rack and datacenter information from Kubernetes master using labels, the value of the following configuration parameter has to be specified as false in client.yaml file:
Building Twister2 Docker Image for Kubernetes
First, build Twister2 project.
This will generate the twister2 package file:
While on twister2 main directory, unpack this tar file:
$ tar xf bazel-bin/scripts/package/twister2-0.4.0.tar.gz
This will extract the files under twister2-0.4.0 directory.
Build Docker image by running the following command from twister2 main directory. Update username with your Docker Hub user name.
$ docker build -t <username>/twister2-k8s:0.4.0 -f docker/kubernetes/image/Dockerfile .
Push generated Docker image to Docker Hub. If you have not already logged in to Docker Hub account, please login first with command: "docker login docker.io"
$ docker push <username>/twister2-k8s:0.4.0
Update Docker Image name in the following resource.yaml file. Put new Docker Image name as the value of the key: "twister2.resource.kubernetes.docker.image"
$ nano twister2/config/src/yaml/conf/kubernetes/resource.yaml
You may also want to update the value of the following key to "Always" in the same "resource.yaml" file:
With this, docker will pull the twister2 image from Docker Hub at each run.
This may slow down startup times for the jobs. However, if you repeatedly build the docker image, this may be convenient.